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From the time when the first printing house was established in 1729 until the Latin alphabet was adopted in 1928, there were a total of 20,000 books printed in Turkey, whereas in the fifty years following this date, the total number of books printed exceeded 200,000. There are currently about 1,500 libraries that provide services for readers. They are attached the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.


Highways are the major means of transport for passengers and cargo, followed by air and maritime transportation. Airlines are the most preferred means of passenger transport to international destinations and maritime transport is preferred for cargo shipments abroad. Transport services are usually provided by the private sector. The State Railways (TCDD) belongs to the public sector. Turkish Airlines (THY) is the biggest airline company where there is also a large number of private airline companies.

The Press

According to the Constitution, the press is “free and may not be cencored” in Turkey. Important changes have been made within the framework of the European harmonization work in Press Legislation. The press is made up of two sectors: the national press and the local press. Foreign books can be found in may bookstores and also many foreign newspapers, magazines can be found at kiosks in metropolitan cities.

For detailed information: Turkish Press Review

Radio and Television

Although the history of radio goes back considerably, television broadcasts started in 1968, following the establishment of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT). A constitutional amendment in 1993 lifted the state monopoly on radio and television broadcasts, allowing private stations to increase in number. At present, the broadcast of local and nationwide radio and television stations are being monitored by the Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK). Finally, in 2005, foreigners were allowed to buy or enter partnerships with Turkish media operators and newspapers.

For detailed information: Radio and Television in Turkey